Biology I
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DNA gyrase  - lowers the energy required to disrupt a base pair

rep protein - helps denature DNA by disrupting base pairs

[1] alleles   alternate forms of a gene

[2] pleitropy   when 1 mutant gene affects more than 1 distinct characteristic of an individual

[3] hemizygous human male with x-linked recessive allele

[4] test cross  playing with phenotypes to determine a genetic pattern

[5] pedigree visually demonstrates patterns of inheritance

1. They’re easy to grow. 

2. They’re easy to manually pollinate.

3. They’re easy to establish true-breeding lines with.

4. Their phenotypic traits (physical characteristics, which varied greatly) were simple. And easy.

5. They’re just easy. 

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). Father of Modern Genetics.

 Law of Segregation
 Law of Independent Assortment

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). Father of Modern Genetics.

Law of Segregation

Law of Independent Assortment

inhibit the cell cycle; when mutated, inhibition turns off, and cells are free to duplicate 

P53 (more frequently mutated than any other involved w/ cancer)

RB gene (40% of all cancers have faulty these)

promote cell cycle; when mutated cause too much cell growth, stimulating division

MYC

JUN

RAS

FOS

MEN

prostate

lung

colorectal

bladder/stomach

WOMEN

breast

lung

colorectal

uterine

CHILDREN

leukemia

brain

programmed cell death.

opposing force of mitosis; maintains balance of cell count

apoptosis enzymes are called capsases.

the signal protein P53 stops the cell cycle at G1 when the DNA is damaged, initiating repair and, should that fail, apoptosis.