DNA gyrase - lowers the energy required to disrupt a base pair
rep protein - helps denature DNA by disrupting base pairs
 alleles alternate forms of a gene
 pleitropy when 1 mutant gene affects more than 1 distinct characteristic of an individual
 hemizygous human male with x-linked recessive allele
 test cross playing with phenotypes to determine a genetic pattern
 pedigree visually demonstrates patterns of inheritance
1. They’re easy to grow.
2. They’re easy to manually pollinate.
3. They’re easy to establish true-breeding lines with.
4. Their phenotypic traits (physical characteristics, which varied greatly) were simple. And easy.
5. They’re just easy.
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). Father of Modern Genetics.
Law of Segregation
Law of Independent Assortment
inhibit the cell cycle; when mutated, inhibition turns off, and cells are free to duplicate
P53 (more frequently mutated than any other involved w/ cancer)
RB gene (40% of all cancers have faulty these)
promote cell cycle; when mutated cause too much cell growth, stimulating division
programmed cell death.
opposing force of mitosis; maintains balance of cell count
apoptosis enzymes are called capsases.
the signal protein P53 stops the cell cycle at G1 when the DNA is damaged, initiating repair and, should that fail, apoptosis.